Case Studies

Demineralization Products

Demineralization is the removal of all cations (e.g. calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, Iron and other heavy metals) and all anions (e.g. bicarbonate alkalinity, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, silica and CO2) from a solution, typically water. The cations are replaced with H+ ions and the anions are replaced with OH- ions to form water. This reduces the total dissolved solids of the solution.

Where is it needed?

  • High Pressure Boiler Feed
  • Sugar Processing
  • Rinse Water for Electronic Devices
  • Process Water for Various Industrial Applications
  • Water for Laboratories

How does it work?

  • Cations are exchanged for H+ ions on a SAC resin
  • Anions are exchanged with OH- ions on a SBA resin
  • H+ and OH- form pure water
  • Each resin is regenerated separately to return them to the H+ and OH- forms using acid and caustic, respectively.

Mixed Bed Demineralization
There are many applications where the cation and anion resins can mixed together in a single vessel as a mixed bed. This configuration can be used for primary demineralization or as a polishing step following a two bed or multi-bed system.

Additional Equipment Considerations:

  • Weak Acid Cation (WAC) resins can be used prior to a SAC resin – these will only remove cations associated with alkalinity.
  • Weak Base Anion (WBA) resins can be used prior to an SBA resin – these will only remove free mineral acidity (FMA), meaning SO4, Cl, and NO3.
  • A degassifier can be placed prior to an SBA vessel to reduce the load of alkalinity down to 6-12 ppm as CaCO3

Demineralization Products by Application

Demineralization - SBA Component