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* CSMR is the Chloride to Sulfate Mass Ratio.
|Polymer Structure||Gel polystyrene crosslinked with divinylbenzene|
|Functional Group||Type I Quaternary Ammonium|
|Total Capacity (min.)||1.65 eq/L (36.1 Kgr/ft³) (Cl- form)|
|Moisture Retention||40 - 45 % (Cl- form)|
|Mean Diameter||570 ± 50 µm|
|< 425 µm (max.)||1 %|
|Uniformity Coefficient (max.)||1.2|
|Shipping Weight (approx.)||675 - 710 g/L (42.2 - 44.4 lb/ft³)|
|Temperature Limit||100 °C (212.0 °F) (Cl- form)|
|Temperature Limit||60 °C (140.0 °F) (OH- form)|
The pressure drop across a bed of ion exchange resin depends on the particle size distribution, bed depth, and voids volume of the exchange material, as well as on the flow rate and viscosity of the influent solution. Factors affecting any of these parameters— such as the presence of particulate matter filtered out by the bed, abnormal compressibility of the resin, or the incomplete classification of the bed—will have an adverse effect, and result in an increased head loss. Depending on the quality of the influent water, the application and the design of the plant, service flow rates may vary from 10 to 40 BV/h.
A 20 BV downflow rinse is required before the vessel is put into service. This rinse can be done onsite or offsite pre-installation. Once the resin is put into service, backwashing is not permitted as this will lead to shortened bed life. This is a uniform grade resin with beads of similar size and will not require backwashing for classification / stratification before use. If it is determined, before startup, that air bubbles or particulate matter are trapped within the bed, then backwashing can be done. In that case, the resin bed should be expanded by 50-70% for 10-15 minutes. Please note that bed expansion increases with higher flow rate and lower water temperature. Avoid loss of resin through the top of the vessel by over expansion of the bed.