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Ionic interaction, Covalent and Adsorptive
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Enzyme Immobilization by Ionic Interaction
Ionic immobilization is the simplest of all immobilization techniques and does not grossly alter the activity of the bound enzyme. It is the physical process that combines ionic interaction between charged amino acids and oppositely charged carriers with adsorption into a hydrophobic carrier.
The primary advantage of ionic interaction for enzyme immobilization is that the carriers are more cost-effective and can be regenerated when enzyme activity is exhausted. They are also suitable for packing into large columns for continuous manufacture.
This process is commonly used by the food industry to manufacture products such as sweeteners and sugar derivatives.
Covalent Enzyme Immobilization
Epoxy Activated Resins
Epoxy activated resins are ideal matrices to perform easy immobilization of enzymes since they allow multipoint covalent binding between the enzyme and resin.
All of our epoxy methacrylate resins in our LifetechTM range are epoxy activated resins produced with a high degree of crosslinking in the presence of a porogenic agent that allows us to precisely control porosity
These carrier resins are stable during storage and easy to handle before, during and after immobilization procedures. All epoxy methacrylate resins are designed to form very stable covalent linkages with different protein groups (amino, thiol, phenolic) under very mild pH and temperature conditions.
The resins are mechanically very stable and the final immobilized biocatalysts can be used in either a stirred tank or column reactor (what are these?). Epoxy methacrylates perform excellently for enzyme immobilization when compared to other commercial products.
Amino Activated Resins
Another procedure for covalent immobilization of enzymes is based on the use of amino resins. Amino resins can be pre-activated by glutaraldehyde and then used in the covalent immobilization of enzymes. All amino resins are offered in three different porosities with the aim to cover a wide range of applications, such as:
Adsorptive Enzyme Immobilization
Adsorption is a physical process that exploits hydrophobic interaction between the hydrophobic surface of enzyme. Making it particularly suitable for such applications like cocoa butter derivatives and fish oils. This is due to the presence of areas with amino acids such as Phenylalanine, Tryptophan and Leucine interacting with the polymeric carrier. These physical interactions can be very robust and they allow the biocatalyst to be used for many cycles.
A major advantage of adsorption for enzyme immobilization is that usually no additional reagents are required. Other advantages include high porosity and mechanical stability, and they are easily dried after immobilization. The method is very gentle and causes little to no conformational change of the enzyme, therefore leaving its active center unaffected.