Recovery, separation and purification of REE and scandium from multicomponent solutions are difficult practical tasks. The chemistry of the systems technologists have to deal with are very complicated. Chemical behavior of the metals of interest, as well as of numerous impurities depends on their relative concentrations, anion background, and acidity. It is impossible to make the best choice of ion exchange resin for a particular case without significant experimental work.
The present work is an attempt to outline several technological tools, which can be useful in selected cases. These cases may be used as patterns of general character and applied to similar tasks. It is recommended to consider each actual case as a system comprising the metal of interest, the specific solution matrix and a resin. Changes to any of these three components will most probably require a re-examination of earlier conclusions arrived at from testwork, for example regarding parameters like the resin selected to achieve the desired separation, sequence of specific technological operations.
This work was possible due to support from Purolite Ltd. The author especially acknowledges valuable input from Dr. A. Tatarnikov, Moscow and his group who skillfully performed the experimental work.
ERECON (2014), Strengthening the European rare earths supply chain: Challenges and policy options, Kooroshy, J., G. Tiess, A. Tukker, and A. Walton (eds.).
British Geological Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Rare Earth Elements, (2011), A. Waters, P. Lusty, A. Hill (eds.).
Zhaowu Zhu, et al. (2015), Separation of uranium and thorium from rare earths for rare earth production – A review, Minerals Engineering. 77, 185–196.
John J. Barghusen, M. Smutz., (1957) Processing of Monazite Sands, Volume 947 of Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University (ISC) series, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Technical Information Service, and also Ind. Eng. Chem., 1958, 50 (12), 1754–1755
Goode, J. R., (2013), Thorium and rare earth recovery in Canada: the first 30 years. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 52 (3), 234-242
Wood, Scott Al., (1990) The aqueous geochemistry of the rare-earth elements and yttrium, Chemical Geology 82, 159-186
Kenneth N. Han, et al., (2014), Opportunities and challenges for treating rare-earth elements, Geosystem Engineering 17 (3), 178-194
Tarwer, Russell Irwin, (1949) Purification of scandium using an ion exchange resin. Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, thesis
Hubicki, Zbigniew, (1990), Studies on Selective Separation of Sc(III) from Rare Earth Elements on Selective Ion-exchangers, Hydrometallurgy 23 (2-3), 319-331
Sokolova, Yu. V., (2006), Sorption of Sc(III) on Phosphorus-containing Cation Exchangers. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry 79 (4), 573-578
Kazantsev, E.A., et al., (1975) Zh. Prikl. Khim. 48 (8)
M. Marhol et al., (1974), Selective Ion-Exchangers Containing Phosphorus in their Functional Groups I. Sorption and Separation of Some Bivalent and Trivalent Ions, J. Radioanal. Chem. 21 (1), 177-186
Joanna Kulczycka, et al. (2016), Evaluation of the recovery of Rare Earth Elements (REE) from phosphogypsum waste - case study of the WIZOW Chemical Plant (Poland). Journal of Cleaner Production 113, 345-354
A.V. Valkov, et al., (2014), Phosphogypsum technology with the extraction of valuable components, Procedia Chemistry 11, 176-181
Mugdha Walawalkar, et al. (2016), Process investigation of the acid leaching of rare earth elements from phosphogypsum using HCl, HNO3,and H2SO4, Hydrometallurgy 66, 195-204
Ines Hammas-Nasri, et al., (2016), Rare earths concentration from phosphogypsum waste by two-step leaching method, International Journal of Mineral Processing 149, 78–83
Takeshi Ogata, et al. (2016), Selective recovery of heavy rare earth elements from apatite with an adsorbent bearing immobilized tridentate amido ligands. Separation and Purification Technology 159, 157-160
C.K. Gupta, N. Krishnamurthy, (2005), Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths. CRC Press , ISBN 0-203-41302-4.
Habashi, F., (2013), Extractive metallurgy of rare earths, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly 52 (3), 224-233
Chu Yong Cheng, et al., (2011), Metallurgical processes for scandium recovery from various resources: A review, Hydrometallurgy 108, 100-108
Borisenko, L. F. (1983), Raw-material resources of scandium, International Geology Review 25 (8), 942-946
Xu Shaoquan, Li Suqing., (1996), Review of the extractive metallurgy of scandium in China ( 1978-1991), Hydrometallurgy 42, 337-343